In the Republic, Plato used the simile of the cave at the climax
of his discussion of philosophy. The escape from the cave into
sunlight represented the progress of the soul from the illusions
of the senses to the world of reality, or epistemy. The similie
is a brilliant example of his ability to create myth out of
abstract ideas and a major statement of his thoughts.
Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250)
Arabic, Persian, and Hindu achievements in algebra were funneled
to Europe, especially to Italy in the 13th and 14th centuries.
An important link in this process was Liber Abaci (Book of the
Abacus) of 1202 by the Italian mathematician and merchant Fibonacci.
He was influenced by Al-Khowarizimi, who used the Arabic term
al jabar--consolidation--and hence Fibonacci’s "algebra."
In his groundbreaking paper Fibonacci elucidated a problem of
rabbit breeding, and what came to be known as Fibonacci numbers.